The text asserts that hāu, hāi, ī, atha, iha, ū, e, hiṅ among others correspond to empirical and divine world, such as moon, wind, sun, oneself, Agni, Prajapati, and so on. The precepts on brahmavidyã have been narrated here through the story of Ushasti and Mahãvat, the conversation between Shvetketu and Udãlak, the dialogue of Nãrad and Sanatsujãt, and the story of Indra and Virochan. The Story of Svetaketu When Svetaketu was twelve years old, he was sent to a teacher with whom he studied until he was twenty-four.  Death is like ablution after the ceremony.. •Their conversation evolves to a discussion of the nature of man, knowledge,Atman (Soul,Self) and moksha (liberation) •Katha literally means "distress". JG Arapura (1986), Hermeneutical Essays on Vedāntic Topics, Motilal Banarsidass, DE Leary (2015), Arthur Schopenhauer and the Origin & Nature of the Crisis, William James Studies, Vol. One must adore and revere Will as manifestation of Brahman. Invocation . 16, No.  The baby is born in the tenth month, lives a life, and when deceased, they carry him and return him to the fire because fire is where he arose, whence he came out of. , The fifth chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad opens with the declaration,. He who Grows Forth is the one who Believes, therefore one must desire to understand what yields Growing Forth (Nististhati, निस्तिष्ठति), Each of these nourishment has three constituents, asserts the Upanishad in volumes 4 through 7 of the sixth chapter.  Each Khanda has varying number of verses. , Upakosala has a conversation with sacrificial fires, which inform him that Brahman is life, Brahman is joy and bliss, Brahman is infinity, and the means to Brahman is not through depressing, hard penance. THE STORY OF INDRA AND VIROCHAN – ÃTMAVIDYÃ ... (Chãndogya Upanishad: 8/11/1). Om! •The Upanishad is the legendary story of Nachiketa– the son of Sage Vajasravasa, who meets Yama(the Hindu deity of death). The precepts on brahmavidyã have been narrated here through the story of Ushasti and Mahãvat, the conversation between Shvetketu and Udãlak, the dialogue of Nãrad and Sanatsujãt, and the story of Indra and Virochan. The king explained that the world of the heavens was the first fire.  The name implies that the nature of the text relates to the patterns of structure, stress, rhythm and intonation in language, songs and chants.  The latter asks, "teach me, Sir, the knowledge of Soul, because I hear that anyone who knows the Soul, is beyond suffering and sorrow". This Seven Fold Sama is ordained to be seen or viewed in the speech in eighth khanda. अथ यत्तपो दानमार्जवमहिँसा सत्यवचनमिति ता अस्य दक्षिणाः ॥ ४ ॥ Section I.  This knowledge of Self is immortal, and the one who knows his own self joins the glory of the Brahman-knowers, the glory of Rajas (kings) and the glory of the people. , The Chandogya Upanishad, in sections 7.16 through 7.26 presents a series of connected statements, as follows. Joel Brereton (1995), Eastern Canons: Approaches to the Asian Classics (Editors: William Theodore De Bary, Irene Bloom), Columbia University Press, S Radhakrishnan (1914), The Vedanta philosophy and the Doctrine of Maya, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. , More elevated than Speech, asserts section 7.3 of the Upanishad, is Manas (मनस्, mind) because Mind holds both Speech and Name (outer worldly knowledges). [Where Brahman-Atman dwells], there are all our true desires, but hidden by what is false.  Satyakama's mother reveals to the boy, in the passages of the Upanishad, that she went about in many places in her youth, and he is of uncertain parentage. The fourth chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad opens with the story of king Janasruti and "the man with the cart" named Raikva. It figures as number 9 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads. The identity expressed in this judgment was variously interpreted by the different darshan s (schools) of the orthodox philosophy of Vedanta. , Paul Deussen notes that the Chandogya Upanishad, in the above verse, is not presenting these stages as sequential, but rather as equal.  They all individually claim to be "most excellent, most stable, most successful, most homely". Patrick Olivelle (1993), The Āśrama System: The History and Hermeneutics of a Religious Institution, Oxford University Press. The story of Satyakama Jabala from the Chandogya Upanishad helps us understand what is the concept of Brahman in Hinduism. 4, pages 610-616, Max Muller translates as "know", instead of "understand", see Max Muller, The Upanishads Part 1, page 121, verse 7.16.1, Oxford University Press. , John Arapura states, "The Chandogya Upanishad sets forth a profound philosophy of language as chant, in a way that expresses the centrality of the Self and its non-duality". They disappear back into space, for space alone is greater than these, space is the final goal. Salt dissolves in water, it is everywhere in the water, it cannot be seen, yet it is there and exists forever no matter what one does to the water.  Then, Prana (breath, life-principle) prepares to leave, and all of them insist that he stay. Fourth khanda continues telling one more method ( Upasana )for meditating upon OM as the Eternal and Ultimate Refuge ( Amritam, Abhayam) and tells that one who mediatates this way becomes himself an Eternal and Ultimate Refuge. The inmost essence of all beings is same, the whole world is One Truth, One Reality, One Soul. This tale helps us realise us that “Everything in the world is part of the same consciousness.” Meditating on the story of Satyakama Jabala brings us closer to the realisation of Brahman (pure consciousness) , The Upanishad presents another symbolic conversational story of Satyakama, the son of Jabala, in volumes 4.4 through 4.9. The fourth chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad opens with the story of king Janasruti and "the man with the cart" named Raikva.  The sets of mapped analogies present interrelationships and include cosmic bodies, natural phenomena, hydrology, seasons, living creatures and human physiology.  The best refuge for man is this universe and the Vedas, assert verses 3.15.4 through 3.15.7. It calls the syllable Om as udgitha (उद्गीथ, song, chant), and asserts that the significance of the syllable is thus: the essence of all beings is earth, the essence of earth is water, the essence of water are the plants, the essence of plants is man, the essence of man is speech, the essence of speech is the Rig Veda, the essence of the Rig Veda is the Sama Veda, and the essence of Sama Veda is udgitha.  The second chapter of the Brahmana is short as well and its mantras are addressed to divine beings at life rituals. Adore and revere the worldly knowledge asserts Sanatkumara in section 7.1 of the Upanishad, but meditate on all that knowledge as the name, as Brahman.  The Sat enters these and gives them individuality, states the Upanishad. Next Upasana is to meditate or view sevenfold sama in the movement of sun in the sky. The first two chapters of the Brahmana deal with sacrifices and other forms of worship. Om. Hari Om! The 13th volume of the first chapter lists mystical meanings in the structure and sounds of a chant. In this connection, the Upanishad commences with a story. Yoga Vasistha. Om! This tale helps us realise us that “Everything in the world is part of the same consciousness.” Meditating on the story of Satyakama Jabala brings us closer to the realisation of Brahman (pure consciousness)  Those who find and realize the Atman, find and realize the Brahman, states the text. Chandogya Upanishad. In that way are you, Śvetaketu. The Chandogya Upanishad opens with the recommendation that "let a man meditate on Om". Revati Sama is ordained to be viewed as grazing animals. Whatever has been, whatever will be, whatever is, and whatever is not, is all inside that palace asserts the text, and the resident of the palace is the Brahman, as Atman – the Self, the Soul.  These are.  Serenity comes from knowing his true desire for Self, realizing the Soul inside oneself, asserts the text. Two more organs Adi and Upadrava are added to Five organs described in second khanda to make Sama Seven Fold.  The debaters summarize their discussion as. Later khandas of this chapter describe various modes of singing Sama, upasana on holy syllable OM, three Savana's, their respective gods and Sama's to them. The Upanishad asserts in verses 4.15.2 and 4.15.3 that the Atman is the "stronghold of love", the leader of love, and that it assembles and unites all that inspires love. This is told in the form of a story of Three Scholars of Sama. That is the self. I It is one of the oldest Upanishads. It is divided into eight Prapathakas and presents the importance of speech, language, songs and chants to the man’s quest for wisdom and ultimate perfection The five householders approach a sage named Uddalaka Aruni, who admits his knowledge is deficient, and suggests that they all go to king Asvapati Kaikeya, who knows about Atman Vaishvanara. It includes as dharma – ethical duties such as charity to those in distress (Dāna, दान), personal duties such as education and self study (svādhyāya, स्वाध्याय, brahmacharya, ब्रह्मचर्य), social rituals such as yajna (यज्ञ). One day, they all went to attend a function in a neighboring village. Vairaja Sama is ordained to be viewed as Seasonal Cycle.  Of the available commentaries, the oldest was written by Adi Shankara. 14th Khanda elaborates famous meditation Shandilya Vidya, known after its revealer the seer Shandilya. यो ह वै ज्येष्ठं च श्रेष्ठं च वेद ज्येष्ठश्च ह वै श्रेष्ठश्च भवति The Upanishad, in these meditations, tries to introduce us into a new type of knowledge which is the solution to the sorrows that are incumbent upon being subject to the laws of this natural phenomenon. The first group comprises chapters I and II, which largely deal with the structure, stress and rhythmic aspects of language and its expression (speech), particularly with the syllable Om (ॐ, Aum). Thou art the Acyutamasi (imperturbable, unchangeable), The fourth verse of the 13th volume uses the word Upanishad, which Max Muller translates as "secret doctrine", and Patrick Olivelle translates as "hidden connections". This premise, that the human body is the heaven world, and that Brahman (highest reality) is identical to the Atman (Soul, Self) within a human being is at the foundation of Vedanta philosophy. Source: "The Upanishads - A New Translation" by Swami Nikhilananda. These reasons invoke three different contextual meanings of Saman, namely abundance of goodness or valuable (सामन), friendliness or respect (सम्मान), property goods or wealth (सामन्, also समान). , Man's journey to self-knowledge and self-realization, states volume 6.14 of Chandogya Upanishad, is like a man who is taken from his home in Gandharas, with his eyes covered, into a forest full of life-threatening dangers and delicious fruits, but no human beings. Hindu Scriptures. Though there are more than two hundred Upanishads, ten are principal. in water view, as different seasons like spring etc.  For example, the initial chapters of the Upanishad is full of an unusual and fanciful etymology section, but Muller notes that this literary stage and similar etymological fancy is found in scriptures associated with Moses and his people in their Exodus across the Red Sea, as well as in Christian literature related to Saint Augustine of 5th century CE. Translation 1: This universe consists of what that finest essence is, it is the real, it is the soul, that thou art, O Śvetaketu! The Chandogya Upanishad is a major Hindu philosophical text incorporated in the Sama Veda, and dealing with meditation and Brahman. It is the symbol of awe, of reverence, of threefold knowledge because Adhvaryu invokes it, the Hotr recites it, and Udgatr sings it. Max Muller has translated, commented and compared Chandogya Upanishad with ancient texts outside India. DD Meyer (2012), Consciousness, Theatre, Literature and the Arts, Cambridge Scholars Publishing.  The deities inside man – the body organs and senses of man are great, but they all revere the life-principle because it is the essence and the lord of all of them.  Sanatkumara first inquires from Narada what he already has learnt so far.  Translation 3: That which is this finest essence, that the whole world has as its self. M Ram Murty (2012), Indian Philosophy, An introduction, Broadview Press, Hardin McClelland (1921), Religion and Philosophy in Ancient India, The Open Court, Vol. A Story From the Upanishads About Self Ten students used to study together under a teacher. Everyone in this family has studied the holy scriptures and the spiritual way.”  One must adore and revere Hope as the Brahman. All three achieve the blessed worlds. (2008), in Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (Second Edition). To reach Svarga, asserts the text, understand these doorkeepers. This is the English translation of the Chandogya-upanishad, including a commentary based on Swami Lokeswarananda’s weekly discourses; incorporating extracts from Shankara’s bhasya. Vaamya Devya Sama is ordained to be viewed as mating process between male and female human beings.  "By strength does the world stand", states verse 7.8.1 of Chandogya Upanishad. It is told that seer Mahidasa Aitareya lived for 116 years by practicing Purusha Vidya. May the different limbs of my body, my tongue, prana, eyes, ears and my strength and also all the other sense-organs be nourished! The second khanda ordains that Udgeetha should be meditated as Vital Life Force or Prana, and tells a story to explain the Holiness of Prana describing how it remained untouched by evil while all other five senses got tainted by evil.  It is one of the oldest Upanishads. This is the English translation of the Chandogya-upanishad, including a commentary based on Swami Lokeswarananda’s weekly discourses; incorporating extracts from Shankara’s bhasya. First 11 khanda's deal with Upasana of Sun and this Upasana is known as Madhu Vidya. A story from Chhandogya Upanishad – Part II January 26, 2015 Philosophy, Reflections, Upanishad Chhandogya Upanishad - 2, Upanishad story It is simply amazing how 5000 years ago, teachers and students of the Upanishads tried to find the answers of fundamental questions of life and the universe through simple available means.  To say that there is no root, no core is incorrect, because "nothing is without a root cause", assert verses 6.8.3 through 6.8.5 of the Upanishad.  The text states in section 7.13, that deeper than Space is Smara (स्मरो, memory) because without memory universe to man would be as if it didn't exist. He who has Belief is the one who Thinks, therefore one must desire to understand why one Believes (Śraddhā, श्रद्दधा), , The story is notable for its characters, charity practices, and its mention and its definitions of Brāhmaṇa and Ṡūdra. The rising and setting of the sun is likened to man's cyclic state of clarity and confusion, while the spiritual state of knowing Upanishadic insight of Brahman is described by Chandogya Upanishad as being one with Sun, a state of permanent day of perfect knowledge, the day which knows no night. In this chapter there is a well known dialogue between sage Sanatkumara and Narada establishing that realizing the ultimate principle of universe is only way to ride over sorrows of man. In second to seventh khanda's this Five-Fold Sama is ordained to be conceptualized or viewed as different worlds such as earth, heaven etc. This Eternal Truth is the home, the core, the root of each living being. May the different limbs of my body, my tongue, prana, eyes, ears and my strength and also all the other sense-organs be nourished! Emphasis is given to guna-based varna. , One of the ancient Sanskrit scriptures of Hinduism, The significance of Om syllable is discussed in the Chandogya Upanishad, as well as other Principal Upanishads. Prana, they acknowledge, empowers them all. University of California press, 1996. This chapter contains the most important message of this Upanishad. , Chandogya Upanishad was in all likelihood composed in the earlier part of 1st millennium BCE, and is one of the oldest Upanishads. Tenth and Eleventh khandas describe three parts of Sama called Prastava, UdGeetha and Pratihaara which are sung by priests in vedic Rituals and their respective gods through a Story of Priest Ushasti Chakrayana. , The Chandogya Upanishad presents the Madhu Vidya (honey knowledge) in first eleven volumes of the third chapter. 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